Girazi rakapfava
Girazi rakapfava kana rakaomeswa imhando yegirazi rekuchengetedza rinogadziriswa neanodzorwa kupisa kana kemikari kurapwa kuti iwedzere simba rayo kana ichienzaniswa neyakajairwa girazi. Kupisa kunoisa nzvimbo dzekunze mukutsikirira uye mukati muite makakatanwa. Kushushikana kwakadaro kunoita kuti girazi, kana ratyoka, ripunzike kuita madiki machunks pachinzvimbo chekutsemuka mumashadhi ane jagged sezvinoita girazi rendiro (aka annealed glass). The granular chunks haanyanyi kukonzera kukuvara.
Nekuda kwekuchengetedzwa kwayo uye simba, girazi rinodziya rinoshandiswa mumhando dzakasiyana-siyana dzinoda zvikumbiro, kusanganisira mahwindo emotokari yevatyairi, magonhi eshawa, magonhi egirazi ekugadzira nematafura, matireyi efiriji, zvidziviriro zvenharembozha, sechikamu chegirazi risingapindi bara. diving masks, uye marudzi akasiyana-siyana emandiro uye cookware.
Properties
Girazi rinodziya rine simba rakapetwa kana kupfuura girazi rakavharwa ("regular"). Kubatana kukuru kwemukati wemukati panguva yekugadzira kunokonzera kudzvinyirira kudzvinyirira pamusoro pegirazi kuenzanirana nekunetseka kwekumanikidza mumuviri wegirazi. Yakazara hasha 6-mm gobvu girazi rinofanirwa kunge riine hushoma hwepasi compression hwe69 MPa (10 000 psi) kana kumucheto kudzvanya kusiri pasi pe67 MPa (9 700 psi). Kuti ionekwe segirazi rekuchengetedza, iyo yepamusoro compressive stress inofanirwa kudarika 100 megapascals (15,000 psi). Nekuda kwekuwedzera kwekushushikana kwepamusoro, kana girazi rikambotyoka rinongotyora kuita zvidimbu zvidiki zvakatenderedzwa zvinopesana neakapinza mashadhi akapinza. Hunhu uhwu hunoita kuti girazi rakadzikiswa risachengetedzeka kune yakakwirira-kumanikidza uye kuputika kwechiratidzo maapplication.
Ndiyo iyi compressive surface stress inopa girazi rinopisa rinowedzera simba. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti girazi rakavharwa, iro rinenge risina kushushikana kwemukati, rinowanzoita mikorokopu yepasi makatsemuka, uye kana pakashaikwa kudzvanywa kwepamusoro, chero tension inoiswa pagirazi inokonzeresa kukakavara pamusoro, iyo inogona kutyaira kupararira. Kana mutswe wangotanga kupararira, kunetsana kunowedzerwazve panoperera mutswe, zvichiita kuti upararire nekumhanya kwekunzwika muchinhu chacho. Nekuda kweizvozvo, girazi rakavharwa harina kusimba uye rinotsemuka kuita zvidimbu zvisina kujairika uye zvinopinza. Nekune rimwe divi, zvinomanikidza zvinomanikidza pagirazi rine hasha zvine chikanganiso uye zvinodzivirira kupararira kwayo kana kuwedzera.
Chero kucheka kana kukuya kunofanira kuitwa kusati kwapisa. Kucheka, kukuya, uye kupinza kwakapinza mushure mekupisa kuchaita kuti girazi rityoke.
Iyo strain pateni inokonzerwa nekupisa inogona kucherechedzwa nekutarisa kuburikidza ne optical polarizer, senge peya yepolarizing sunglasses.
Uses
Girazi rinopisa rinoshandiswa kana simba, kupisa kwekupisa, uye kuchengetedzeka zvichikosha kufunga. Motokari dzinotakura vanhu, semuenzaniso, dzine zvese zvitatu zvinodiwa. Sezvo achichengeterwa panze, anogara achidziyirwa nekutonhodzwa pamwe nekuchinja kukuru kwekushisa kwegore rose. Pamusoro pezvo, dzinofanirwa kushingirira twunhu tudiki tunobva kumarara emumigwagwa sematombo pamwe netsaona dzemumigwagwa. Nekuti hombe, yakapinza girazi shards yaizopa imwe njodzi uye isingagamuchirwe kune vafambi, girazi rine hasha rinoshandiswa kuitira kuti kana rakatyoka, zvimedu zvakagomara uye zvakanyanya kusakuvadza. Iyo windscreen kana windshield inogadzirwa nelaminate glass, iyo isingapwanyike kuita zvidimbu kana yatyoka nepo mahwindo epadivi uye yekumashure girazi rinowanzodziya.
Zvimwe zvinojairwa kushandiswa kwegirazi rinopisa zvinosanganisira:

  • Balcony doors
  • Zvivako zvemitambo
  • Madziva ekutuhwina
  • Facades
  • Masuo ekugeza uye nzvimbo dzekugezera
  • Nzvimbo dzekuratidzira uye zviratidziro
  • Computer shongwe kana makesi

Zvivako uye zvivakwa
Girazi rakapfava rinoshandiswawo muzvivakwa zvemagungano asina furemu (senge magonhi egirazi asina furemu), maapplication akarongedzerwa, uye chero imwe application inogona kuve nengozi kana munhu akanganisa. Makodhi ekuvaka muUnited States anoda girazi rakadzikama kana rakanamirwa mumamiriro akati wandei anosanganisira mamwe skylights, padyo nemasuo nemasitepisi, mahwindo makuru, mahwindo anotambanukira pedyo nepasi, magonhi anotsvedza, maelevator, mapaneru edhipatimendi remoto, uye pedyo nemadziva ekutuhwina.
Zvishandiso zvemumba
Girazi rinodziya rinoshandiswawo mumba. Mimwe midziyo yemumba yakajairika uye midziyo inoshandisa girazi rinodziya magonhi ekugeza asina furemu, matafura egirazi, masherufu egirazi, kabati girazi uye girazi renzvimbo dzemoto.
Basa rekudya
“Rim-tempered” inoratidza kuti nzvimbo yakaganhurirwa, yakadai somupendero wegirazi kana kuti ndiro, yakapfava uye yakakurumbira mubasa rezvokudya. Nekudaro, kune zvakare vagadziri vane hunyanzvi vanopa yakazara kushatirwa / kuomeswa zvinwiwa mhinduro inogona kuunza yakawedzera mabhenefiti muchimiro chesimba uye nekupisa kuvhunduka kuramba. Mune dzimwe nyika zvigadzirwa izvi zvinotsanangurwa munzvimbo dzinoda kuwedzera mazinga ekuita kana kuti dzine chinodiwa chegirazi rakachengetedzeka nekuda kwekushandiswa kwakanyanya.
Girazi rakapfava raonawo kuwedzera kushandiswa mumabhawa nemabhawa, kunyanya muUnited Kingdom neAustralia, kudzivirira girazi rakaputsika richishandiswa sechombo. Zvigadzirwa zvegirazi zvakapfava zvinogona kuwanikwa mumahotera, mabara, uye maresitorendi kudzikisa kuputswa uye kuwedzera kuchengetedzwa kwemazinga.
Kubika nekubika
Mamwe marudzi egirazi rinodziya anoshandiswa pakubika nekubheka. Vagadziri uye mhando dzinosanganisira Glasslock, Pyrex, Corelle, uye Arc International. Iyi ndiyowo rudzi rwegirazi rinoshandiswa pamagonhi evheni.
Kugadzira
Girazi rinodziya rinogona kugadzirwa kubva mugirazi rakanyungudutswa kuburikidza nekupisa kwekupisa. Girazi rinoiswa patafura yeroller, richiritora nemuchoto rinopisa zvakanaka pamusoro petembiricha yaro ye564 ° C (1,047 ° F) kusvika kunosvika 620 ° C (1,148 ° F). Girazi rinobva rakurumidza kutonhodzwa nemhepo yekumanikidzirwa asi chikamu chemukati chinoramba chakasununguka kuyerera kwenguva pfupi.
Imwe nzira yekuomesa makemikari inosanganisira kumanikidza girazi repamusoro rinenge 0.1 mm mukobvu mukutsikirirwa neion kuchinjanisa maion sodium mugirazi ne potassium ions (iyo yakakura 30%), nekunyudza girazi mubhavhu rekugeza. yakanyungudutswa potassium nitrate. Kuomesa makemikari kunoguma nekuwedzera kuomarara kana kuchienzaniswa nekupisa uye kunogona kuiswa kune girazi zvinhu zvemaumbirwo akaomarara.
Zvakaipa
Girazi rakapfava rinofanirwa kuchekwa kusvika pakukura kana kudzvanywa kuti riite risati rapisa, uye harigone kushandiswazve kana rashatirwa. Kupukuta mipendero kana maburi ekuboora mugirazi kunoitwa kusati kwatanga. Nekuda kwekunetseka kwakadzikama mugirazi, kukuvadzwa kwechero chikamu kunozopedzisira kwaita kuti girazi riputse kuita zvimedu zvezvigunwe. Girazi rinonyanya kukanganisa kuputsika nekuda kwekukuvadzwa kumucheto kwegirazi, uko kushushikana kwakanyanya ndiko kwakanyanya, asi kuputika kunogonawo kuitika kana paine chiitiko chepakati pegirazi regirazi kana kukanganisa kwacho kwakadzikira. (somuenzaniso, kurova girazi nechinangwa chakaoma).
Kushandisa girazi rine hasha kunogona kuunza njodzi yekuchengetedza mune mamwe mamiriro nekuda kweiyo tsika yegirazi kupwanyika zvachose pane yakaoma simba pane kusiya shards muhwindo furemu.
Iyo pamusoro pegirazi ine hasha inoratidzira masaisai epamusoro anokonzerwa nekusangana ne flattening rollers, kana yakaumbwa uchishandisa maitiro aya. Iyi waviness idambudziko rakakura mukugadzira matete firimu solar maseru. Iyo inoyangarara girazi process inogona kushandiswa kupa yakaderera-kukanganisa mashizha ane akanyanya flat uye anoenderana nzvimbo seimwe nzira yeakasiyana glazing application.
Nickel sulfide defects inogona kukonzera kuparara kwega kwega kwegirazi makore mushure mekugadzirwa kwayo.


Nguva yekutumira: Jul-20-2020